Plant hormones (phytohormones) are long time known as important components of signaling cascades in plant development and plant responses to various abiotic and biotic challenges. Plants, unlike animals, lack glands that produce and secrete hormones. Instead, each cell is capable of producing hormones, which occur in extremely low concentrations. To date, a total of 10 structurally unrelated small molecules (abscisic acid [ABA], auxin [AUX], brassinosteroids [BRs], cytokinins [CKs], ethylene [ETH], GAs, jasmonates [JAs], nitric oxide, salicylic acid [SA], and strigolactones [SLs]) have been recognized as plant hormones.
Figure 1 Plant hormones
Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple plant hormones often mediate the same biologic process by additive, synergistic, or antagonistic actions, whereas each type of hormone has a characteristic biologic effect. For example, plant-pathogen interactions result in changes in the level of various phytohormones. SA, JA, and ethylene are well-known signal molecules in plant immunity. Although auxin has a pivotal function in plant development and growth, this hormone also has a position in plant-pathogen interactions. ABA can positively regulate disease in some conditions and promote defense response in other cases by antagonistic interaction with SA and JA/ethylene or synergistic interaction with JA.
The nonpeptide plant hormones are structurally unrelated small molecules. Plant hormones act as signal molecules in biological activities and frequently occur in low concentration. The homeostasis of these hormones is tightly controlled between the biosynthetic and metabolic pathways. The metabolism of nonpeptide plant hormones is generally categorized into three types of reactions: hydroxylation, oxidation, and conjugation. For example, hydroxylation of JA results in partial biologically active 12-OH-JA and hydroxylation of ABA generates biologically active 7'-OH ABA, 8'-OH ABA, and 9'-OH ABA. Cytokinin can be inactivated by oxidation. The formation of hormone conjugates may generate different forms of active hormones, inactive storage hormones, or intermediates for catabolism, such as the active JA-isoleucine (Ile) and methyl JA (MeJA), the inactive storage IAA-alanine, and the intermediate IAA-aspartic acid (Asp). A tiny or small amount of variation in the concentration of a phytohormone may change physiologic activity, although the roles of these hormones in different biologic processes still remain to be elucidated. Thus, measurement of the level of hormones and hormone metabolites is frequently used in the study of the molecular regulations of different biologic processes.
Low hormones concentrations in plants and the presence of compounds that interfere with hormones detection make the quantitative analysis of hormones a challenge for analytical chemistry. Chromatographic methods have been used increasingly to exclude interfering compounds, separate different hormones from each other, and increase the precision of hormones quantification. The combination of GC or LC with MS has been a major advance in the analysis of hormones. Here Creative Proteomics established a HPLC-MS/MS-based platform for quantitative analysis of plant hormones. This platform is sensitive and reliable for simultaneous quantification of multiple analytes in a small amount of tissue.
Plant Hormones Quantified in This Service
|Plant Hormones Quantified in This Service|
With integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective Plant Hormones targeted metabolomics services.
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