Sphingolipids are a group of lipids with eighteen carbon amino-alcohol backbones synthesized from nonsphingolipid precursors in the ER. The various modification of this basic structure contributing to a large number of sphingolipids. These sphingolipids play an important role in membrane construction and provide many bioactive metabolites for cell function regulation.
Though sphingolipids are of various structures and functions, the synthesis and degradation pathway for these sphingolipids are the same. Thereforre, the sphingolipid metabolism is a highly-connected networks diverged from a single common synthesis pathway and converge into a single common degradation pathway. The simplest forms of sphingolipids are sphingosine, phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine. They act as the backbones for other complex types of sphingolipids. Phosphorylation of the C1 hydroxyl group of these simple compounds, for example, generates the end products of the important signaling molecules such as sphingosine-1-phosphate, phytosphingosine-1-phosphate and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Regulated by respective ceramide synthases, the acylation of these simple compounds contributes the synthesis of ceramide, phytoceramide, or dihydroceramide.
Glycosphingolipids (GSL) is a group of sphingolipids of the highest complexity. They are composed of dozens of different sphingolipid species with different orders and different type of attached sugar residues. Since ceramides are of various acyl chain compositions, the glycosphingolipids which with ceramides as precursors, are also of great variety. The glycosphingolipids can be categorized into two groups: glucosphingolipids and galactosphingolipids. The synthesis of glucosphingolipids is catalyzed by the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), which will attach glucose to the first position of C1 hydroxyl group. The synthesis of galactosphingolipids is catalyzed by an evolutionarily dissimilar enzyme from GCS, galactosylceramide synthase (GalCerS). The further modifications of various glycosyltransferases assist in the increase of potential variation in sphingolipids species. Though all sphingomyelin species are composed of the same headgroup, they have different acyl chains attached to their C-2 amino groups because they are generated from a variety of ceramide species, which have different acyl chains. It is not known whether the acyl chain lengths differences are contributing to their specific physiological or pathological function.
To help us to understand the various roles of sphingolipids in the regulatory network, it is of great importance to develop specific and quantitative methods for sphingolipids. Creative Proteomics developed a novel LC-MS/MS for the reliable, simultaneous quantification of sphingolipid and its metabolites such as sphingosine, sphinganine, phyto-sphingosine, hexosylceramide, ceramide-1-phosphate, and dihydroceramide-1-phosphate. Peak areas were corrected to avoid the overestimation of species concentrations. Quantification was achieved by adding naturally occurring specific sphingolipid species standard to the sample matrix. The quantification method for sphingolipids and its metabolites in Creative Proteomics is of excellent precision, accuracy, and robustness.
Sphingolipids and Its Metabolites Quantified in This Service
|Sphingolipids and Its Metabolites Quantified in This Service|
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With integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective sphingolipids metabolism targeted lipidomics services.
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