Sphingoid bases are long-chain aliphatic compounds possessing an acyclic carbon skeleton typically with a 2-amino-1,3-diol functionality. The main sphingoid bases of mammalian tissues are sphingosine (2S,3R-d-erythro-2-amino-1,3-octadec-4E-ene-diol), sphinganine (2S,3R-d-erythro-2-amino-1,3-octadecane diol) and 4-hydroxy-sphinganine (2S,3S,4R-erythro-2-amino-1,3,4-octadecane triol). In yeast, the main sphingoid bases are dihydrosphingosine and phytosphingosine.
Figure 1. Sphingosine structure
Sphingoid base synthesis is required for the internalization step of endocytosis and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in yeast. Sphingoid bases have also been indicated to play a role in regulation of cell surface expression of amino acid permeases. Moreover, sphingoid bases were shown to affect signaling pathways such as protein kinase C and phosphatidic acid. In addition, it has been suggested that increased Sphingoid bases increase with aging in yeast. Sphingoid bases were demonstrated to mediate the aging process by inhibiting mitochondrial fusion and causing fragmentation, resulting in decreases in mtDNA copy numbers, ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potentials, and oxygen consumption.
Creative Proteomics offers a comprehensive profiling of sphingoid base that satisfy a variety of purposes. GC/MS platform enables more sensitive and selective assay of sphingoid base measurement. GC/MS techniques serves as a powerful analytical tool for identification and quantification of sphingoid base.
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