Phospholipids are a type of lipids that are a major component of cell membranes. They can form lipid bilayers for their amphiphilic characteristic. The structure of a phospholipid molecule typically consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head" consisting of a phosphate group. These two components are joined together by a glycerol molecule. The phosphate group can be modified with simple organic molecules such as choline. The first phospholipid discovered in 1847 as such in biological tissues was lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine, in the egg yolk of chickens by the French chemist Theodore Nicolas Gobley. Biological membranes in eukaryotes also contain another kind of lipid, sterol, interspersed among the phospholipids and together they offer membrane fluidity and mechanical strength.
Phospholipid synthesis happens in the cytosole adjacent to ER membrane which is studded with proteins that act in synthesis and allocation (flippase and floppase). Ultimatelya vesicle will bud off from the ER containing phospholipids destined for the cytoplasmic cellular membrane on its exterior leaflet and phospholipids destined for the exoplasmic cellular membrane on its inner leaflet.
Phospholipids have been widely applied to prepare ethosomal, liposomal and other nanoformulations of topical, oral and parenteral drugs for differing reasons like improved bio-availability, increased penetration andreduced toxicity. Liposomes often consist of phosphatidylcholine-enriched phospholipids and may contain mixed phospholipid chains with surfactantproperties. The ethosomal formulation of ketoconazole using phospholipids is a promising option for transdermal delivery in fungal infections.
Currently, a reliable and reproducible method using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS platform for the identification and quantification of diverse phospholipid species in different sample types has been established by the scientists at Creative Proteomics, which can satisfy the needs of academic and industrial study in your lab.
Identification and quantification of diverse phospholipids by mixed organic solvent extraction in cells or tissue. These phospholipid species can be measured in a Phospholipid Panel by targeted LC-MS/MS or by shotgun approaches.
Representative phospholipid species in Phospholipids Panel 1
|Phospholipid Classes||Bioactive Phospholipids|
|Phosphatidic acids (PA)||PAF (platelet activating factor)|
|Phosphatidylcholines (PC)||S-1-P (Sphingosine-1-Phosphate)|
Representative phospholipid species in Phospholipids Panel 2
|1||Phosphatidic acid (PA)|
|2||Phosphatidylethanol (PEtOH) (or phosphatidylbutanol, PBuOH)|
|5||Platelet-activating factor (PAF)|
|8||Monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositol (PIP)|
|9||Bisphosphorylated phosphatidylinositol (PIP2)|
|10||Trisphosphorylated phosphatidylinositol (PIP3)|
|13||The corresponding lyso-phospholipids (LPL)|
|14||The corresponding ether lipids|
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Staffed by experienced biological scientists, Creative Proteomicscan provide a wide range of services ranging from the sample preparation to the lipid extraction, characterization, identification and quantification. We promise accurate and reliable analysis, in shorter duration of time! You are welcome to discuss your project with us.