What Is Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)
Lipids, particularly sphingolipids, serve not only as major constituents of cell membranes but also as signaling molecules that regulate a multitude of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses in some cells. Several lipid metabolites, notably sphingosine (Sph) and 1-phosphorylated sphingosine (S1P), are recognized as pivotal bioactive molecules that control cell fate decisions. S1P can be dephosphorylated to form Sph through the action of S1P phosphatases. Sph, acting as a negative regulator, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis. Conversely, S1P, as a phosphorylated derivative of Sph, is involved in promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis.
Many cells are capable of secreting S1P, which can subsequently influence other cells either through autocrine or paracrine signaling. S1P exerts diverse biological effects, notably enhancing cell growth and inhibiting normal apoptotic responses. Extensive research indicates that S1P promotes tumor growth, inhibits apoptosis, facilitates tumor angiogenesis, and supports metastasis. By stimulating the release of calcium from intracellular stores, S1P elevates intracellular calcium levels. Furthermore, S1P modulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, Toll-like receptor signaling, and inflammation, processes associated with conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.
Figure 1. Structure of Sphingosine-1-phosphate
SIP Mass Spectrometry Detection Technology
Currently, several methods are available for quantifying low-abundance SIP content in biological samples. These methods include radioactive isotope-labeled enzymatic assays, radioactive receptor binding assays, HPLC pre-derivatization, mass spectrometry, and LC-MS/MS, among others.
Mass spectrometry methods provide an exceptionally sensitive analytical approach for quantifying SIPs, especially when they are present at low concentrations within biological specimens. The efficacy of mass spectrometry hinges upon the ionizability of the target compounds and the capacity to distinctly detect the ions they produce. SIP molecules are well-suited for mass spectrometry analysis due to their ready ionization characteristics and the distinctive functional groups and skeletal structures they exhibit.
Recently, there have been methods that involve direct injection of sample extracts into mass spectrometers, which offer simplicity and sensitivity compared to HPLC. However, due to the lack of chromatographic separation, such methods require multi-step extractions to minimize interference from factors like plasma and matrix effects. These, in turn, introduce time-consuming steps, limiting their widespread use.
The integration of LC-MS/MS technology merges the capabilities of HPLC and mass spectrometry, resulting in an analytical method that provides enhanced sensitivity, selectivity, specificity, and the ability to handle high-throughput applications. This renders it particularly well-suited for the analysis of large sample sets.
Our SIP Mass Spectrometry Detection Services
With experienced scientists at Creative Proteomics, we have developed a reliable and reproducible method using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the rapid identification and quantification of S1P in different sample types, which can satisfy the needs of academic and industrial study in your lab.
Feature and Advantage of Sphingosine-1-phosphate Service
Reliable & Reproducible
High sensitivity, selectivity, specificity, and high throughput
Suitable for large-sample analyses.
Normal Volume: 100ul plasma; 50mg tissue; 2e7 cells
Minimal Volume: 50uL plasma; 30mg tissue; 5e6 cells
A full report including all raw data, MS/MS instrument parameters and step-by-step calculations will be provided (Excel and PDF formats).
Analytes are reported as uM, with CV's generally ~10%.
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