Eicosanoids include prostaglandins (PG), thromboxanes (TX), leukotrienes (LT), and lipoxins (LX). Prostanoids refer to PGs and TXs. The names of prostanoids are given according to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the molecule. Because of the presence of two carbon-carbon double bonds, most of the biologically active prostaglandins and thromboxanes are series 2 molecules. The eicosanoids with four carbon-carbon double bonds are series 4 molecules. Prostaglandins are first shown being produced in the prostate gland. Thromboxanes are first shown being synthesized in platelets (thrombocytes). And leukotrienes are first identified from leukocytes. Therefore, they were given their respective names. The lipoxins are inflammation involved with eicosanoids, which are produced through lipoxygenase interactions. In response to ingestion of aspirin, the synthesis of lipoxins can be increased according. Therefore, lipoxins are powerful inflammation modulating eicosanoid compounds. Other eicosanoid derivatives include resolvins (Rv) and the protectins (PD).
Eicosanoids play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the joints, skin and eyes, on the induction of labor and on the intensity and duration of pain and fever. They also assist in the inhibition gastric acid secretion, regulation of blood pressure through vasodilation or constriction, and inhibition or activation of platelet aggregation and thrombosis. The eicosanoids of greatest biological importance to humans are a large number of molecules arachidonic acid derivatives in the reaction pathway from linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. There is also a small group of eicosanoids comes from eicosapentaenoic acid derived from α-linolenic acid. The main source of arachidonic acid is cellular stores release. Inside the cell, arachidonic acid localized primarily at the C–2 positions of membrane phospholipids and the release is triggered by the activation of PLA2.
Eicosanoids can be synthesized in all mammalian cells except erythrocytes. These molecules are rather powerful, minimum amount of eicosanoids can exert potent physiological effects. At the site of synthesis, eicosanoids exert their roles locally through receptor-mediated G-protein linked signaling pathways. There are two main pathways are associated with the biosynthesis of eicosanoids. Prostaglandins and thromboxanes are generated in the cyclic pathway, while the leukotrienes are produced in the linear pathway.
Since eicosanoids play a crucial role in large number of disorders like asthma, cardiovascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the detection and quantification of these compounds are of great interest. Since the endogenous eicosanoids are of rather low concentration, sensitive and specific analytical methods are required for the reliable quantification of these compounds. HPLC-MS/MS has emerged as one of the main techniques used for eicosanoid quantification. Creative Proteomics has established sensitive, reliable, and accurate LC-MS/MS method for quantification of eicosanoids.
- Identification and quantification of eicosanoids by LC-MS/MS.
- Normal Volume: 100ul plasma; 50mg tissue; 2e7 cells
- Minimal Volume: 50uL plasma; 30mg tissue; 5e6 cells
- A detailed technical report will be provided at the end of the whole project, including the experiment procedure, GC-MS instrument parameters
- Analytes are reported as uM or ug/mg (tissue), and CV's are generally<10%
- The name of the analytes, abbreviation, formula, molecular weight and CAS# would also be included in the report.
|Eicosanoids Quantified in This Service|
|11-dehydro TXB3||11-deoxy PGF2α||11-HEPE|
|13,14-dihydro PGE1||13,14-dihydro PGF1α||13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGA2|
|13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGE1||13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF1α||13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2α|
|13,14-dihydro-15-keto Prostaglandin D1||13,14-dihydro-15-keto Prostaglandin D2||13,14-dihydro-15-keto Prostaglandin E2|
|13-OxoETE||13-OxoODE||14 15 ,15-EEQ|
|15-deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin D2||15-deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2||15-HEPE|
|15-HETE||15-keto PGA1||15-keto PGE1|
|19(R)-HETE||19(R)-hydroxy prostaglandin E2||19(R)-hydroxy prostaglandin F2a|
|5 (S)-HpETE||5(6)-EET||5(S),14(R)-Lipoxin B4|
|6-keto Prostaglandin F1α||6-trans leukotriene E4||8,9-EEQ|
|8-iso PGF2α||8-iso Prostaglandin A1||8-iso Prostaglandin A2|
|Arachidonic acid||Docosahexaenoic Acid||Docosapentaenoic Acid|
|Eicosapentaenoic Acid||lecithin||Leukotriene B4|
|LTE4||Maresin-1||N-acetyl leukotriene E4|
|Prostaglandin D2||Prostaglandin D3||Prostaglandin E2|
With integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective eicosanoids targeted lipidomics services.