Lipids play important roles in plants, serving as structural components of cellular membranes, major storage reserve in seeds, pigments for energy capture in leaves, and signaling molecules for cellular communication.
With the development of lipidomics, the applications of mass spectrometric analysis of plant lipids also improved significantly. "Plant lipidomics" is defined as the analysis of plant cellular lipids using mass spectrometry method. A variety of methods, including ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, GC-MS are used in plant lipidomics studies. Untargeted lipid profiling can be used to detect metabolic changes in response to developmental and environmental changes.
Figure 1. Workflow of plant lipidomics analysis
Lipids are shown to play important roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental changes. Glycerolipids are the most abundant lipid type in plants, comprising phospholipids, glycolipids and neutral lipids. Phospholipids can be further divided into subgroups including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Glycolipid group includes monogalactosyldiaclyglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG). The composition of these compounds differs among different tissues and species of the plants, and is also strongly influenced by nutrients and environments.
Untargeted lipidomics can be used to study many research topics including:
The instrumentation useful for the identification of plant lipidomics includes MS, GC, HPLC, or LC-MS, GC-MS. The coupling of chromatographic methods such as GC or HPLC with MS can greatly increase coverage of lipids. As one of the widely used analytical techniques in plant lipidomics, GC-MS is utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze a wide range of volatile and derivatized nonvolatile lipids ranging from 14-24 carbons which contains 0-3 double bonds. Compared to LC-MS and LC-NMR, GC-MS is of analytical reproducibility and lower costs. LC-MS has also been used in these years for the untargeted large-scale analysis of plant lipids.
With integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective plant untargeted lipidomics analysis with LC-MS, GC-MS.
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