Gangliosides are a large family of complex lipids that are components of neural cell membranes that are abundantly found in the brain. A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid with one or more sialic acids linked on the sugar chain. Gangliosides are structural components of cell membranes, with the two hydrocarbon chains embedded in the plasma membrane and the oligosaccharides located on the extracellular surface, where they provide points of recognition for extracellular substances or surface molecules of the neighboring cells. The oligosaccharide groups act as distinguishing surface markers that play important roles in cell–cell recognition, adhesion, and signaling.
Figure 1. Structure of GM1 ganglioside
Gangliosides are shown to provide a neuroprotective role by promoting neural development in the neonate, and are involved in memory and learning. However, the mechanism is not very clear. Some believe that ganglioside can protect the cell from harsh conditions, such as low pH and degradative enzymes, in the extracellular environment. They were shown to help cells interact with extracellular matrices and other cells. Gangliosides are also related to cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. During aging and in some neurodegenerative diseases, the profile of Ganglioside pattern. Pronounced alterations in ganglioside profiles have been found in the Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, HIV 1-related dementia, and lysosomal storage diseases.
So far, mass spectrometry (MS) has been extensively employed to study gangliosides.
GC–MS/MS platform enable quantification of ganglioside species. The results are widely used for investigating the relative changes in ganglioside concentrations, and potential biomarker discovery. GC–MS/MS techniques serves as a powerful analytical tool for identification and quantification of gangliosides. Creative Proteomics has established sensitive, reliable, and accurate GC-MS/MS method for quantification of ganglioside species.
Feature and Advantage of Ganglioside Analysis
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