Carbohydrates are the most abundant and diverse components of many foods such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, potatoes, and flour. Chemically they are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and symbolized with the chemical formula (CH2O)n. Carbohydrates can exist as individual molecules or physically associated or chemically attached to other molecules. According to the number of monomers, individual carbohydrate molecules can be classified as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. When carbohydrate molecules covalently attached to proteins, the proteins are regarded as glycoproteins. When carbohydrate molecules covalently attached to lipids, the lipids are known as glycolipids. Some carbohydrates are digestible and act as crucial energy source for humans while other carbohydrates are indigestible and fail to act as energy source. Carbohydrates that can be digested, such as lignin, are regarded as dietary fiber. It is shown that consumption of sufficient quantities of dietary fiber is of great benefits of human nutrition and health, reducing the risk of diabetes and constipation, coronary heart disease and certain types of cancers. Besides acting as an important source of energy and dietary fiber, carbohydrates also contribute to the appearance, textural and sweetness of many foods.
Monosaccharide, most often known simple sugar or low molecular weight sugar, is water-soluble crystalline compounds with the simplest form of carbohydrate. They are aliphatic aldehydes or ketones with one or more hydroxyl groups and one carbonyl group as reactive centers. Commonly occurring hexoses in foods are glucose, fructose and galactose, whilst commonly occurring pentose like arabinose and xylose are the most abundant monosaccharide in food. Other monosaccharide in food included glucose, fructose and galactose, which act as energy source for organisms. Monosaccharides are also building blocks for more complex carbohydrates and other macromolecules important for organisms. For example, ribose and deoxyribose are monosaccharides are the building blocks of RNA and DNA, two important genetic macromolecules crucial for life. What’s more, derivatives of monosaccharides also play important roles. For example, vitamin C is a monosaccharide derivative serving as an important antioxidant.
For a number of reasons, it is of great importance to determine the concentration and type of carbohydrates in food. A large number of analytical platforms have been developed to detect the type of and the total concentration carbohydrates in foods. Creative Proteomics has developed a robust, reproducible and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method using a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for the simultaneous quantification of monosaccharides derived from glycoprotein and blood serum. Reduction, derivatization or postcolumn addition of reagents is not necessary. This method exhibit very high sensitivity to carbohydrates with limits of detection of 1 pg and with linearity ranging over three orders of magnitude (pg to ng).
Low Molecular Weight Sugars Quantified in This Service
|Low Molecular Weight Sugars Quantified in This Service|
With integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective low molecular weight sugars targeted metabolomics services.