Bile acids are a large family of steroids, which has a carboxyl group in the side chain. They are predominantly found in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. In the liver, bile acids can conjugate with taurine or glycine and form bile salts. Chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid are the most abundant bile acids in human bile and they are the primary bile acids synthesized in the liver. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids are the major secondary bile acids and they are formed by the action of intestinal bacterial bacteria on primary bile acids.
Metabolism of bile acids plays an important role in maintaining and regulating cholesterol homeostasis. About 500 mg of cholesterol is converted to bile salts every day in a healthy adult human. The major pathway for the synthesis of the bile acids in the liver, starts from the conversion of 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol from of cholesterol, while the alternative pathway of bile salt synthesis begins with the formation of 27-hydroxycholesterol or oxysterol-24-hydroxycholesterol. In extra-hepatic tissues, the intermediates generated in these two pathways can be converted to bile salts. These extra-hepatic conversions play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis.
Also, acting as emulsifiers, bile acids facilitate the digestion of triacylglycerol, make lipids more accessible to pancreatic lipases and promote the intestinal absorption of fats (fat-soluble vitamins included).
Various intermediates in bile acids synthesis and the secondary metabolism of these intermediates make bile acids a rather complex mixture. The differences of these compounds in the mixture rely on the number, positions and stereochemistry of hydroxyl groups and the length of the side chain. Not only the concentrations of bile acids in infants, healthy adults and patients with liver disease would be different; the hydroxyl groups may also be introduced at different positions. The complex nature of the bile acids exist in the sample is the key factor determines the analytical method to be used. The bile acids are rather complex mixture and quantification of bile acids is needed. Simple analytical quantification methods have limitations, so time-consuming LC-MS quantification method is needed for bile acids analysis. With LC-MS, variable mixtures of bile acids in blood, urine, meconium, feces and amniotic fluid can be quantified successfully.
Here Creative Proteomics develop a sensitive and rapid method for the analysis of the 66 bile acids physiological samples by LC-MS.
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With integrated a set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective bile acids targeted metabolomics services.