What is Nucleoside/Nucleotide?
Nucleosides and nucleotides are essential components of nucleic acids, which are the basic building blocks of RNA and DNA. A nucleoside consists of a purine (A, G) or pyrimidine (C, T, U) nitrogenous base and a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) bonded together. Though the nucleotide normally refers nucleoside monophosphate, now nucleoside diphosphate or nucleoside triphosphate are also belonged to nucleotides. In other words, a nucleotide consists of a nucleobase, a pentose, and a phosphate groups. The presence of phosphate groups distinguishes nucleotides from nucleosides. Importantly, they play crucial roles in storing and transmitting genetic information and are involved in almost all biochemical reaction processes in organisms, including energy transfer (e.g., ATP), signaling pathways, and enzymatic reactions. The determination of nucleosides and nucleotides is widely used in various fields such as biochemistry, medicine, food, and metabolomics. Many clinically used antiviral drugs are nucleoside or nucleotide analog drugs.
Figure 1. The structure of Nucleoside and Nucleotide.
Nucleosides and nucleotides are distributed along with nucleic acids in various organs, tissues, and cells in organisms, and participate in basic life activities such as inheritance, development, and growth of organisms. There are also considerable amounts of Nucleosides and nucleotides existing in free form in organisms. For example, adenosine triphosphate plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism. Energy release and absorption in the body are mainly reflected by the production and consumption of ATP. In addition, uridine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate are also sources of energy in the anabolism of some substances. Adenylate is also a component of certain coenzymes, such as coenzymes I, II and coenzyme A. In living organisms, nucleotides can be synthesized from some simple compounds. These synthetic raw materials include aspartic acid, glycine, glutamine, one-carbon units, and CO2, etc. The catabolism of purine nucleotides in the body can produce uric acid, and the decomposition of pyrimidine nucleotides can produce CO2, β-alanine and β-Aminoisobutyric acid, etc. Metabolic disorders of purine nucleotides and pyrimidine nucleotides can cause clinical symptoms, such as purine metabolism disorders, pyrimidine metabolism disorders. Therefore, it is important to analysis nucleoside/nucleotide and derivatives.
Our Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analysis Service
Historically, ATP concentration is measured with the established highly sensitive luciferin-luciferase luminescence assay technique appropriate for measuring localized ATP. Alternative analytical methods include HPLC-UV, LC-MS. While ATP is a useful biomarker for certain diseases, the significance of other nucleotides and nucleosides remains largely unexplored. Simultaneous quantification of ATP, ADP, AMP, GTP, GDP, GMP, UTP, UDP, UMP can't be achieved with the luciferin-luciferase assay. But don't worry, the Creative Proteomics team has successfully developed streamlined, rapid, and dependable LC-MS and HPLC-UV methodologies that we can identification and quantification more than 16 Nucleosides/Nucleotides.
|Nucleotides Quantified in This Service
|Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
|Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide,reduced (NADH)
|Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)
|Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH)
1. Professional detection and analysis capability: Experienced research team, strict quality control system, together with ultra-high resolution detection system and professional data pre-processing and analysis capability, ensure reliable and accurate data.
2. Reproducible: Obtain consistent and reproducible inter- and intra- assay results for data analysis.
3. High veracity of data: For sample identification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of various nucleosides and nucleotides can be achieved efficiently and accurately, with low cost, high efficiency, and standard curve R2>0.99.
4. High resolution and sensitivity: AB SCIEX QTRAP 6500 Plus, AB SCIEX QTRAP 5500, et al.
- Normal Volume: 200 μL serum/plasma; 200 mg tissue, 2×107 cells
- Minimal Volume: 50 μL serum/plasma; 50 mg tissue, 5×106 cells.
- Any other samples such as body fluid, feces, cell culture medium supernatant.
1. A detailed technical report will be provided at the end of the whole project, including the experiment procedure, MS/MS instrument parameters, etc.
2. Raw data and data analysis results.
- Analytes are reported as μM or μg/mg (tissue), and variable-coefficient are generally<10%
- The name of the analytes, abbreviation, formula, molecular weight, and CAS# would also be included in the report.
How to place an order
At Creative Proteomics, many excellent and experienced experts will optimize the experimental protocol according to your requirement and guarantee the high-quality results for Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analysis Service. Creative Proteomics can provide a broad range of technologies for Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analysis Service. Please feel free to contact us by email to discuss your specific needs. Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, from Monday to Sunday.