The prostaglandins (PG) are a set of physiologically active lipid compounds with diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins are derived enzymatically from fatty acids.A prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a sub-family of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. Prostaglandins have two derivatives: prostacyclins and thromboxanes. Prostacyclins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and can inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets. Through their role in vasodilation, prostacyclins also play important roles in inflammation. They are often synthesized in the walls of blood vessels and serve the physiological function of preventing needless clot formation, as well as regulating the contraction of smooth muscle tissue. On the contrary, thromboxanes are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation. Their names come from their role in clot formation (thrombosis).
Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue and organin humans and other animals. They are produced by almost all nucleated cells. They are autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators that act upon endothelium, platelets, uterine and mast cells. They are usually synthesized in the cell from the essential fatty acids (EFAs).An intermediate arachidonic acid is produced from diacylglycerol via phospholipase-A2, then brought to either the lipoxygenase pathway orthe cyclooxygenase pathway. The lipoxygenase enzyme pathway is active in leukocytes and in macrophages and synthesizes leukotrienes. Alternatively, the cyclooxygenase pathway produces prostacyclin, thromboxane and prostaglandin D, E and F.
There are typically ten known prostaglandin receptors on diverse cell types. Prostaglandins ligate a subclass of cell surface seven-transmembrane receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors(GPCRs). These receptors are termed as DP1-2, EP1-4, FP, IP1-2, and TP, corresponding to the receptors that ligate the corresponding prostaglandin.
These various receptors means that prostaglandins act on a large group of cells and have a wide variety of effects such ascausing constriction or dilation in vascular smooth muscle cells, causing aggregation or disaggregation of platelets, sensitizing spinal neurons to pain, inducing labor, decreasing intraocular pressure, regulating inflammation, regulating calcium movement, regulating hormones, and controlling cell growth, etc.
Currently, a reliable and reproducible method using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS platform for the identification and quantification of diverse prostaglandin species in different sample types has been established by the scientists at Creative Proteomics, which can satisfy the needs of academic and industrial study in your lab.
Profile of multiple kinds of prostaglandinsby mixed organic solvent extractionin plasma or tissue. Prostaglandins are extracted and concentrated using solid phase extraction. The eluent is dried and re-suspended for LC-MS separation and measured using MRM methods.
- Normal Volume: 200 uL plasma, 20 mg tissue, 1e7 cells
- Minimal Volume: 50uL, 5 mg tissue, 6 e6 cells
- A full report including all raw data, MS/MS instrument parameters and step-by-step calculations will be provided (Excel and PDF formats).
- Analytes are reported as uM or ug/mg (tissue), and CV's are generally<10%.
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Staffed by experienced biological scientists, Creative Proteomics can provide a wide range of services ranging from the sample preparation to the lipid extraction, characterization, identification and quantification. We promise accurate and reliable analysis, in shorter duration of time! You are welcome to discuss your project with us.