Ketone Bodies Analysis Service


Ketone  bodies refer to three molecules, acetoacetate (AcAc), 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)  and acetone. 3HB is formed from the reduction of AcAc in the mitochondria.  These two predominant ketone bodies are energy-rich compounds that transport  energy from the liver to other body tissues. Acetone is a minor product,  generated by spontaneous decarboxylation of AcAc and is responsible for the  sweet odor on the breath of individuals with ketoacidosis.

Ketone  bodies Analysis Service  Figure  1. Ketone bodies.

Ketone body metabolism includes ketone body  synthesis (ketogenesis) and breakdown (ketolysis). When the body goes from the  fed to the fasted state the liver switches from an organ of carbohydrate  utilization and fatty acid synthesis to one of fatty acid  oxidation and ketone body production. This metabolic switch is amplified in  uncontrolled diabetes. In these states the fat-derived energy (ketone bodies)  generated in the liver enter the blood stream and are used by other organs,  such as the brain, heart, kidney cortex and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are  particularly important for the brain, which has no other substantial  non-glucose-derived energy source. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate  (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) also referred to as β-hydroxybutyrate, with  acetone the third, and least abundant. Ketone bodies are always present in the  blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. After an  over-night fast, ketone bodies supply 2–6% of the body's energy requirements,  while they supply 30–40% of the energy needs after a 3-day fast. When they  build up in the blood they spill over into the urine. The presence of elevated  ketone bodies in the blood is termed ketosis and the presence of ketone bodies  in the urine is called ketonuria. The body can also rid itself of acetone  through the lungs that gives the breath a fruity odour. Diabetes is the most  common pathological cause of elevated blood ketones. In diabetic ketoacidosis,  high levels of ketone bodies are produced in response to low insulin levels and  high levels of counter-regulatory hormones.

Amino Sugars Analysis Service  Figure  2. Interplay between ketone body production (ketogenesis) in the liver  and ketone body utilization utilization (ketolysis) in non-hepatic tissue such  as skeletal muscle.

Ketone  bodies are insignificant in the blood and urine of normal individuals in the  postprandial or overnight-fasted state. However, these ketoacids become  important sources of metabolic energy in circumstances in which the  availability of glucose is restricted, as during prolonged fasting, or when the  ability to use glucose is greatly diminished, as in decompensated diabetes  mellitus. During prolonged starvation the arterial concentrations of these  metabolically active strong organic acids increase approximately 70-fold to 10  to 12 mM and to  significantly higher levels of 30 to 40 mM in  diabetic ketoacidosis. The mechanisms responsible for the development of  ketonemia are: (1) increased production by the liver; (2) decreased peripheral  utilization in muscle; (3) reduced volume of distribution. Since ketone  bodies are not bound to plasma proteins, they are freely filterable solutes in  the renal glomerulus and appear quantifiably in the tubular urine. At the very  low plasma concentrations of ketone bodies that are encountered normally after  an overnight fast, urinary excretion rates are negligible. When plasma levels  increase beyond 0.1 to 0.2 mM,  however, excretion increases and measurable amounts of ketone bodies appear in  the urine.

Poorly  controlled or decompensated diabetes mellitus is the most common pathologic  condition causing ketonuria. As a result, routine testing of urine for ketones  in diabetics has been universally employed in hospitals and by outpatients to  assess adequacy of diabetes control and determine insulin dosage during periods  of loss of control. The presence or absence of ketonuria is also useful  for clinical classifications of fasting hypoglycemia in infancy and childhood.  The absence of ketone bodies is evidence for excess insulin secretion associated  with beta cell neoplasia, whereas ketonuria suggests a lack of fuel  availability. Thus ketone bodies quantification is quite necessary for  scientist research and clinic trial. Here Creative Proteomics provides a fast  and reliable LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of ketone bodies.

Platform

Summary

Report

Ketone  Bodies Quantified in This Service

With  integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and  quantification systems featured with excellent robustness &  reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides  reliable, rapid and cost-effective ketone bodies targeted metabolomics  services.

How  to place an order:

Ordering Procedure

*If your organization  requires signing of a confidentiality agreement, please contact us by email.


INQUIRY
Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, from Monday to Sunday. Inquiry

Online Inquiry

Please submit a detailed description of your project. We will provide you with a customized project plan to meet your research requests. You can also send emails directly to for inquiries.

Stay in contact

  • 45-1 Ramsey Road, Shirley, NY 11967, USA
  • Tel: 1-631-275-3058
  • Fax: 1-631-614-7828
  • Email:
© 2008-2019 Creative Proteomics. All rights reserved.