Fat-soluble vitamins- A, D, E, and K -can be dissolved in lipid and they are stored in the fat and liver tissue for long periods of time until needed. Only small amounts of fat-soluble vitamins are needed. In otherwise healthy individuals, normal, well-balanced diet will not lead to fat-soluble vitamins toxicity. However, unlike water-soluble vitamins, excess consumption of fat-soluble vitamins could result in toxicity.
Vitamin A also known as retinol, has many functions in the body, such as adaption of the eyes to light changes, regulation of the immune system and reproductive systems. Besides maintaining the normal function of heart, lungs and kidneys, vitamin A plays an essential role in the growth of bone and the development of tooth. As an important antioxidant, vitamin A also assists in the prevention of certain cancers. The eyes, skin and mucous membranes rely on vitamin A for maintaining moisture. Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include night blindness, decreased resistance to infections, dry, rough skin and slower bone growth.
Vitamin D, by enhancing the absorption of calcium through the small intestine, assists in the formation and maintenance of bones. Together with calcium, vitamins D maintains your bones strong and prevent the occurrence of rickets and osteoporosis, which are disorders caused by vitamin deficiency and with the symptoms of soft, weak and brittle bones. Besides, vitamin D also helps to enhance your immune system to fight against inflammation. Adequate amounts of vitamin D for children are essential for the development of strong bones and healthy teeth. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include rickets (long, soft bowed legs) in growing children and osteomalacia (muscle and bone weakness), and osteoporosis (loss of bone mass) in adults. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased risk of autoimmune diseases, hypertension, various cancers, and infectious disease.
Vitamin E, one of the known antioxidants, can eliminate free radicals, which are molecules damage your cells. It not only enhances your immune system but also keeps blood moving without clotting in your blood vessels. By eliminating the free radicals, vitamin E reduces the risk for heart disease and cancer. Vitamin E also protects essential fatty acid, red blood cells and other vitamins such as vitamin C and A from being destructed.
Bacteria in intestine can synthesize Vitamin K. It plays an essential role in the formation of blood clot. It also assists your body by making proteins for blood, bones, and kidneys. Newborn babies who lack the intestinal bacteria or people who take anticoagulants or antibiotics (with intestinal bacteria being killed) may become vitamin K deficient. Hemorrhaging will occur without sufficient amounts of vitamin K.
- Extraction of fat-soluble vitamins from plasma by LLE. After extraction, supernatants are dried and reconstituted, separated by RPLC. Then the vitamins are quantified by ESI by MRM methods.
- Normal Volume: 200uL plasma, 20 mg tissue, 10g food or solid
- Minimal Volume: 100uL plasma, 10 mg tissue, 5g food or solid
- A detailed technical report will be provided at the end of the whole project, including the experiment procedure, MS instrument parameters.
- Analytes are reported as uM/ml, while CV's are generally 10%.
- The name of the analytes, abbreviation, formula, molecular weight and CAS# would also be included in the report.
|Fat-soluble Vitamins Quantified in Our Service|
|Vitamin A (Retinol)||Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol)||Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)|
|Vitamin E (Tocopherol)||Vitamin E Acetate (Tocopherol acetate)||Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone)|
|Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone)|
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With integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective fat-soluble vitamins targeted metabolomics services.