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Fat Soluble Vitamins Analysis Service

What Is Fat-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs), comprising vitamins A, D, E, and K, represent a vital group of micronutrients essential for human health. These vitamins are characterized by their insolubility in water and their solubility in lipids and non-polar organic solvents. They are primarily stored in the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles within the human body. Specifically, vitamins A, D, E, and K exhibit the capacity to dissolve in lipids and are retained within adipose and hepatic tissues for extended durations, becoming accessible when required.

It is noteworthy that only minute quantities of fat-soluble vitamins are necessary for the body's optimal functioning. In individuals with a typical, well-rounded diet and good health, there is typically no risk of fat-soluble vitamin toxicity. Nevertheless, it is crucial to highlight that unlike their water-soluble counterparts, an excessive intake of fat-soluble vitamins can potentially lead to toxic effects.

Vitamin A also known as retinol, has many functions in the body, such as adaption of the eyes to light changes, regulation of the immune system and reproductive systems. Besides maintaining the normal function of heart, lungs and kidneys, vitamin A plays an essential role in the growth of bone and the development of tooth. As an important antioxidant, vitamin A also assists in the prevention of certain cancers. The eyes, skin and mucous membranes rely on vitamin A for maintaining moisture. Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include night blindness, decreased resistance to infections, dry, rough skin and slower bone growth.

Vitamin D, by enhancing the absorption of calcium through the small intestine, assists in the formation and maintenance of bones. Together with calcium, vitamins D maintains your bones strong and prevent the occurrence of rickets and osteoporosis, which are disorders caused by vitamin deficiency and with the symptoms of soft, weak and brittle bones. Besides, vitamin D also helps to enhance your immune system to fight against inflammation. Adequate amounts of vitamin D for children are essential for the development of strong bones and healthy teeth. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include rickets (long, soft bowed legs) in growing children and osteomalacia (muscle and bone weakness), and osteoporosis (loss of bone mass) in adults. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased risk of autoimmune diseases, hypertension, various cancers, and infectious disease.

Vitamin E, one of the known antioxidants, can eliminate free radicals, which are molecules damage your cells. It not only enhances your immune system but also keeps blood moving without clotting in your blood vessels. By eliminating the free radicals, vitamin E reduces the risk for heart disease and cancer. Vitamin E also protects essential fatty acid, red blood cells and other vitamins such as vitamin C and A from being destructed.

Bacteria in intestine can synthesize Vitamin K. It plays an essential role in the formation of blood clot. It also assists your body by making proteins for blood, bones, and kidneys. Newborn babies who lack the intestinal bacteria or people who take anticoagulants or antibiotics (with intestinal bacteria being killed) may become vitamin K deficient. Hemorrhaging will occur without sufficient amounts of vitamin K.

Fat Soluble Vitamins Analysis Service

Why to Detect Fat-Soluble Vitamins

The assessment of fat-soluble vitamins is of paramount importance due to the potential health consequences associated with both deficiency and excess intake of these vital micronutrients. Inadequate levels of fat-soluble vitamins can precipitate deficiency disorders, whereas sustained overconsumption can induce toxic effects within the organism. The monitoring of vitamin concentrations in blood samples and other biological fluids serves as a valuable diagnostic tool for a range of diseases and greatly facilitates the treatment process.

Vitamin A, encompassing compounds such as retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid, assumes a pivotal role in fundamental physiological processes including vision, growth and development, cell division, reproduction, and immune function. Vitamin D primarily functions in the enhancement of calcium and phosphate absorption by the mucosal cells of the small intestine, thereby promoting bone growth, regulating cell growth and differentiation, and modulating immune responses. Vitamin E, in addition to its antioxidant properties, is essential for vision, reproduction, neurological health, and skin integrity. Vitamin K is integral to blood coagulation and bone formation.

It is crucial to emphasize that an excessive intake of fat-soluble vitamins can engender adverse effects on the body. Manifestations of vitamin toxicity encompass symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, renal impairment, cutaneous manifestations, and disruptions in reproductive function.

Challenges in Measurement of Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Traditional approaches for quantifying fat-soluble vitamins frequently rely on techniques such as immunoassays, spectrophotometry, and liquid chromatography, among others. Nevertheless, these methods often present several challenges, including limited sensitivity, inadequate specificity, and the inability to simultaneously assess multiple fat-soluble vitamins. Consequently, the scientific community has long aspired to develop a streamlined, efficient, precise, and single-injection methodology for the concurrent determination of multiple fat-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamins are characterized by notable disparities in their intracellular concentrations, and the matrices in which they are embedded are inherently complex. For instance, the intracellular levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and vitamin K1 are exceedingly low. These intricacies pose formidable obstacles in the realm of clinical testing when it comes to measuring fat-soluble vitamins.

Emerging evidence underscores the intricate interplay and mutual influence of vitamins within the human body. For instance, children manifesting late-onset vitamin K deficiency often exhibit preliminary symptoms of vitamin D deficiency. Prolonged supplementation with vitamin D3 can result in diminished vitamin E levels. Furthermore, individuals with diminished vitamin A intake in the context of colorectal cancer display an inversely correlated relationship with blood vitamin D levels. When vitamins E and A are administered concomitantly, they can synergistically enhance the absorption and utilization of vitamin A. Consequently, there exists a compelling imperative to concurrently assess the concentrations of multiple vitamins.

In standard circumstances, the concentration of vitamin D2 ranges from 1/20 to 1/10 of that of vitamin D3. However, in certain populations, vitamin D2 concentrations can markedly exceed 10 ng/mL. Vitamin D3 exhibits greater potency than D2, boasts a lengthier half-life, and holds enhanced clinical relevance in specific scenarios. Thus, it frequently becomes necessary to discriminate between the measurement of D2 and D3.


  • LC-MS

Characteristics of LC-MS/MS Detection

Mass spectrometry has emerged as the "gold standard" for the detection of various small molecules due to its inherent structural specificity.

The ability to perform direct detection without reliance on antibodies makes mass spectrometry conducive to the seamless addition of new assays.

Mass spectrometry offers high accuracy, high sensitivity, and strong specificity, allowing for the simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in a single assay.

Separate measurement of vitamin D2 and D3 is achievable using LC-MS/MS.

MethodTypes of DetectionReproducibilitySensitivityStabilityAccuracySample Size
ImmunoassayManyGoodLowGoodLow, cross-reactivityMany
ElectrochemicalFewPoorHighPoor, susceptible to environmental interferenceHighMany
LC-MS/MSMostGoodVery HighGoodHighestLeast

Technical Advantages

Our company can quantitatively measure multiple fat-soluble vitamins in a single injection. This method offers strong specificity, high sensitivity, and reliable stability, among other advantages.

Sample Requirements

Plant Tissues: 1g/sample

Animal and Clinical Tissue Specimens: 200 mg/sample

Serum and Plasma: 200 μL/sample

Urine: 1 mL/sample

Cells and Microorganisms: 1X 10^7 cells/sample

Feces and Intestinal Contents: 200 mg/sample


  • A detailed technical report will be provided at the end of the whole project, including the experiment procedure, MS instrument parameters.
  • Analytes are reported as uM/ml, while CV's are generally 10%.
  • The name of the analytes, abbreviation, formula, molecular weight and CAS# would also be included in the report.
Fat-soluble Vitamins Quantified in Our Service
Vitamin A (Retinol)Vitamin D2Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)Vitamin E Acetate (Tocopherol acetate)Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone)
Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone)

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With integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification systems featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective fat-soluble vitamins targeted metabolomics services.

* For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
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