Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are primarily saturated fatty acids (FA) with one or more methyl branch on the carbon chain. BCFA are categorized as mono-, di-, or multi-methyl BCFA based on the number of methyl branches. BCFAs can be found in bacteria, fish, dietary products and in the vernix caseosa of human infants. Human breast milk and fermented soy have relatively high amounts of BCFAs in natural occurring food resources.
Figure 1. Methyl branched fatty acids: 17-methyl-6Z-octadecenoic acid
BCFAs are known to regulate a variety of biological processes and provide positive health benefits. Branched chain fatty acids are constituents of the normal healthy newborn gastrointestinal tract and play a significantly role in gut colonization. BCFAs has also been reported to inhibit the proliferation or development of different types of cancer cells. Recently, 13-methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTD), an iso-C15 saturated fatty acid, was purified as an anti-cancer agent from a soy-fermentation product by inducing apoptosis. 13-MTD induces apoptotic cell death in many cancer cells such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), leukemia (K563) and mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7).
In addition, SCFAs have been conferred anti-obesity properties in both animal models and human subjects. Branched short chain fatty acids, including isobutyric and isovaleric acid, were shown to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in primary adipocytes. BSCFAs were shown to regulate homeostasis and protect against lipotoxicity by decreasing the rate of de novo lipogenesis, and increasing lipolysis. Finally, BCFAs were shown to regulate gene expressions. Previous studies suggested that sets of genes may be regulated by BCFAs, and impact on cell growth and development. Branched chain fatty acids demonstrate potential health properties, and further studies is needed to understand its regulatory effects on these health outcomes.
GC/MS platform enables relative and absolute quantification of branched chain fatty acids. Creative Proteomics has established sensitive, reliable, and accurate GC/MS method for quantification of several branched chain fatty acids.
Feature and Advantage of branched chain fatty acid analysis
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