Retinoic Acid Analysis Service


Retinoic acid is a member of the over 4,000-strong  family of retinoids, which are compounds derived from retinol or vitamin A, or  compounds structurally similar to it. Vitamin A itself is derived only from  food, and cannot be made in the body of any animal. It is esterified and stored  in the liver, the richest source of vitamin A apart from supplements. Retinoic  acid is synthesized from retinol via two enzymatic reactions, involving first  reversible oxidation of retinol to retinal, and then a second oxidation, this  time irreversibly, to retinoic acid. It is a light-sensitive compound, like  other retinoids, because of the alternating double bonds between the carbon  atoms in its hydrophobic tail, which is attached to a 6-carbon ring. The low  molecular weight of the compound also makes it highly fat-soluble, which means  it easily diffuses across cell membranes.

Retinoids  are important biological molecules, which act in cell growth, epithelial cell  growth and maturation, apoptosis and immunologic function, and are vital in  embryonic life for organ development. It is also key for visual function.  Retinoids like retinoic acid help to transform cell types from the  proliferative profile to the maturation profile, by inducing differentiation.

Retinoic  acid is bound in the cell by cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) and  inside the nucleus by two types of receptors, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR)  and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). There are various biologically active forms  of retinoic acid, and they isomerize under physiological conditions. The  different isomers act on different receptors.

Retinoic Acid  Analysis Service  Figure. Retinoic acid synthesis and signaling.

All  retinoids have a variety of uses in visual and skin conditions, and in cancer  therapeutics. A low vitamin A intake is associated with a  higher cancer risk. Abnormal RA receptors are also linked to cancer  development. Animal studies show that retinoids suppress cancerous changes.  Human studies confirm that retinoid administration suppresses cancers of the  breast, lung and liver; reverses premalignant changes and induces differentiation  of the myeloid cell series in blood.

All-trans  RA, or tretinoin, is the most abundant natural isoform, and has been found to  be an active agent against a wide range of cancers of the lung, brain, kidney,  blood cells, lymphatic tissue, uterine cervix and skin. Another form of  retinoic acid, called 9-cis retinoin, or isotretinoin, is also used in the  treatment of skin lesions of Kaposi’s sarcoma, as well as for cancers of the  breast and prostate.

We  Creative Proteome provides a sensitive LC (liquid chromatography)/MS/MS assay using  selected reaction monitoring to quantify RA (retinoic acid), which is  applicable to biological samples of limited size (10–20 mg of tissue wet  weight), requires no sample derivatization, provides mass identification and  resolves atRA (all-trans-RA) from its geometric isomers.

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Retinoic Acid Quantified in This Service

With  integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and  quantification systems featured with excellent robustness &  reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides  reliable, rapid and cost-effective retinoic  acid targeted metabolomics services.

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