The cells of eukaryotic organisms are elaborately divided into functionally different membrane bound compartments. Some major components of eukaryotic cells are: extracellular space, mitochondria, nucleus, cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, nucleoplasm, peroxisome, cytoskeleton, nucleolus, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ribosomes and nuclear matrix.
Bacteria also have protein subcellular localizations that can be disconnected when the cell is fractionated. The most generic localizations referred to include the cytoplasm, the cell wall (which is generally thicker in Gram-positive bacteria), the cytoplasmic membrane (also referred to as the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria) and the extracellular environment. Most Gram-negative bacteria also have an outer membrane and periplasmic space. Compared to eukaryotes, most bacteria do not have membrane-bound organelles, however there are some exceptions. Protein subcellular localization is a significant part of bioinformatics based prediction of protein function and genome annotation, and it can aid the identification of drug targets.
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