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Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) Analysis Service

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What is Free Fatty Acid (FFA)?

Free fatty acid (FFA), also known as nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), in serum is primarily an intermediate product of fat metabolism. Its concentration is related to lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and endocrine function. The concentration of free fatty acids can increase due to conditions such as diabetes, severe liver disorders, and hyperthyroidism. Extensive research has shown a correlation between high serum concentrations of free fatty acids and the development of cardiovascular diseases.

Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) Analysis Service

Clinical Roles of Fatty Acids

Free Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases:

(1) Relationship with Atherosclerosis: High concentrations of NEFA can lead to hyperfibrinogenemia, increased blood viscosity, decreased vascular fibrinolysis activity, deposition of vascular wall fibrinogen, and resistance to heparin. Elevated fibrinogen levels often promote platelet and red blood cell aggregation, decrease fibrinolysis activity, and contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis, exacerbating existing atherosclerotic conditions.

(2) Correlation with Arrhythmias: During the initial phases of acute myocardial infarction, there is heightened utilization of free fatty acids by the myocardium, accompanied by the release of free fatty acids into the bloodstream from adipose tissues. Consequently, a decline in plasma-free Ca2+ concentration occurs, disrupting oxidative phosphorylation and potentially serving as a precipitating factor for arrhythmias.

(3) Relationship with Ischemic Myocardial Contractility: High concentrations of NEFA can exacerbate damage to the pumping function of the ischemic heart. Under aerobic conditions, NEFA does not affect myocardial contractile function, but under hypoxic or anoxic conditions, it can reduce contractility, increase resting tension, and exert a stronger inhibitory effect with higher concentrations, potentially causing myocardial spasms.

Free Fatty Acids and Metabolic Syndrome:

Metabolic syndrome, also known as X syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, encompasses a range of metabolic and physiological disturbances related to insulin resistance. It includes central obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism disorders, hyperuricemia, and more. NEFA is the most active metabolic lipid in the human body, with a half-life of only 2-3 minutes. It serves as an indicator that responds earlier and more sensitively to disruptions in lipid metabolism than triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and APOA1/B.

Free Fatty Acids and Type 2 Diabetes:

In physiological concentrations, serum NEFA enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, prolonged elevation of NEFA concentrations can inhibit glucose oxidation and transport, suppress glycogen synthesis, promote gluconeogenesis, affect insulin secretion and signal transduction, and influence β-cell apoptosis. Monitoring and controlling NEFA concentrations have become a new approach in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Free Fatty Acids and Liver Diseases:

High concentrations of NEFA acting on liver cells can lead to mitochondrial swelling and increased permeability, cellular degeneration, necrosis, and inflammatory infiltration. Even extremely low NEFA concentrations can alter mucosal permeability, causing mucosal damage and injuring endothelial cells. Therefore, even a slight increase in NEFA concentration in the blood or liver can damage liver cells. The occurrence of fatty liver disease is closely related to disturbances in lipid metabolism. During hyperlipidemia, increased NEFA release due to accelerated fat breakdown leads to elevated NEFA content in the blood. When liver cells uptake excessive NEFA beyond the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, it promotes increased triglyceride (TG) synthesis. If the rate of TG synthesis within liver cells becomes too rapid and accumulates to a certain level, it results in fatty liver formation.

Our Service Advantages:

Rich experience in short-chain fatty acid projects with tens of thousands of sample tests.

Comprehensive analysis of 22 biological information content, delving deep into data exploration.

Examples of Detected Substances

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  • A full report including all raw data, MS/MS instrument parameters and step-by-step calculations will be provided (Excel and PDF formats).
  • Analytes are reported as uM, with CV's generally ~10%.

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Staffed by experienced biological scientists, Creative Proteomics can provide a wide range of services ranging from the sample preparation to the lipid extraction, characterization, identification and quantification. We promise accurate and reliable analysis, in shorter duration of time! You are welcome to discuss your project with us.


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* For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
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