In animals, many of the dietary lipids are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFAs) before being absorbed and utilized further for lipid synthesis. Lipids can be hydrolyzed to FFAs in tissues by lipolytic enzymes, such as hormonesensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and phospholipases A and C, before they are metabolised in many different pathways, including oxidation, desaturation, elongation and re-esterification.
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are a type of fatty acid ester that is derived by transesterification of fats with methanol. These molecules in biodiesel are mainly FAMEs, usually obtained from vegetable oils by transesterification. They are used to produce detergents and biodiesel. FAMES are usually produced by an alkali-catalyzed reaction between methanol and fats in the presence of base such as sodium methoxide or sodium hydroxide.
The first of many important advances in the early development of GLC for analytical purposes was the separation and determination of FA reported by James and Martin in 1952. Soon after, the analytical separation of FAME by vapor-phase chromatography was described by Cropper and Heywood. Since then, the characterization of FA composition by esterification to FAME and subsequent determination by GC has become one of the most widely performed analyses in lipid research laboratories and has found broad application to biochemical, biomedical, microbiological, agricultural, and ecological research.
With the coupling of MS methods to GC, much has been completed in the area of qualitative characterization of FAME mixtures. Owing to GC–MS provides spectrometric information on separated compounds, it provides a means of analyte selectivity; thus, detection with MS also reveals a potentially powerful tool for quantitative analysis of FAME, especially in the presence of a convoluted biochemical background. Despite the potential benefits of GC–MS methodologies for quantitative FAME analysis, the more familiar FID is still favored in some laboratories, particularly among lipid specialists.
Currently, a reliable and reproducible method using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS platform for the identification and quantification of free fatty acids (Fames) in different sample types has been established by the scientists at Creative Proteomics, which can satisfy the needs of academic and industrial study in your lab.
Identification and quantification of free fatty acids by GC-MS (Fames)
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