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Venom Organic Acids Analysis

Organic acids are important active small molecules in venoms, which in many toxic species have not been fully explored. Creative Proteomics is committed to helping researchers analyze the organic acids in venom samples through high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) technology to further expand the metabolomics research of venoms.


Venom is a complex mixture of biologically active compounds, including low molecular weight components such as organic acids, nucleosides, amines, amino acids, and alkaloids. The development of various omics is conducive to the study of small venom molecules, so the usefulness of low-molecular-weight components in medicine has been proven in some poisonous animals, such as toads, frogs, snakes and spiders. In order to better characterize the venom and understand its biological and pharmacological properties, Creative Proteomics uses HPLC-MS/MS technology to provide analysis services for organic acids in venom samples.

Types of Organic Acids in Venom

Based on the mass spectrometry method, we can determine some organic acids in the venom. Some common organic acids in the venom include: citric acid, formic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, glutaric acid, etc

  • Citric acid. The speculated function is based on the inactivation of metalloproteases, phospholipases and nucleases to prevent the degradation of venom and glandular tissues. Citric acid is present in all venoms, such as snake venom, spider venom, and bee venom.
  • Malic acid and succinic acid. Malic acid and succinic acid are intermediates of the citric acid cycle and have been tested in snake venom.
  • Kynurenine. Kynurenine alters neuronal function by affecting receptors such as NMDA receptors and neuronal cholinergic α7 nicotine receptors, and is present in frog toxins.

The variability of organic acid levels in venom is caused by many factors, such as habitat, food, age, and weather conditions. Therefore, the application of modern analytical techniques such as LC-MS/MS can better help us understand the changes in organic acids in animal venom.

Technical Route

We use the HPLC-MS/MS system for targeted venom organic acid analysis, and provide reagents and standards used in the analysis process. The overall analysis process is mainly to first collect and prepare samples, then perform chromatographic separation by liquid chromatography, and finally perform mass spectrometry detection and analysis. The specific technical route is shown in the figure below.

Venom Organic Acids Analysis


  • Provide specific and accurate data
  • Quantitative analysis in a wide range of concentrations
  • Good precision and accuracy
  • Increase the understanding of venom by studying the composition of organic acids

Our venom organic acid analysis service provides specific and accurate data on the content of various organic acids in the venom, and expands the understanding of the composition of the venom. Based on the method of mass spectrometry, Creative Proteomics can further explore and compare the organic acid composition of venom before and after metabolism to expand metabolomics analysis.

If you need to know more about venom metabolomics services, please contact us for more information.


  • Pawlak M, et al. Extending Metabolomic Studies of Apis mellifera Venom: LC-MS-Based Targeted Analysis of Organic Acids. Toxins, 2019, 12(1):14.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.
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