Triticum aestivum (Wheat) Metabolomics Analysis

Triticum aestivum (Wheat) Metabolomics Analysis

Service Details Case Study

Triticum aestivum Metabolomics

Triticum aestivum, commonly known as wheat, plays a pivotal role in global agriculture and food production. Metabolomics, a cutting-edge analytical approach, offers deep insights into the complex biochemical processes within wheat, contributing to advancements in crop research and development. Creative Proteomics, a leading provider of scientific solutions, offers specialized services tailored to Triticum aestivum metabolomics studies.

Metabolomics involves the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in biological systems. In the context of Triticum aestivum, this technique uncovers the plant's metabolic fingerprint, revealing how it responds to environmental cues, stressors, and growth stages. Creative Proteomics utilizes state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and chromatography techniques, including Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), to analyze a diverse range of metabolites in wheat samples.

Triticum aestivum Metabolomics Solution We Provide

Stress Response Profiling: Metabolomics enables the study of Triticum aestivum's metabolic changes under stress conditions like drought, diseases, and nutrient imbalances. This facilitates the identification of stress-responsive metabolites, guiding the development of stress-resistant Triticum aestivum varieties.

Enhancing Wheat Quality: Through metabolomics, we assess the metabolite composition of different Triticum aestivum strains to optimize qualities like taste, texture, and suitability for processing. This empowers you to select Triticum aestivum varieties that align with specific food product requirements.

Nutritional Insights: Metabolomics analysis provides a comprehensive view of Triticum aestivum grain nutrition, highlighting essential nutrients, vitamins, and bioactive compounds. This knowledge aids in breeding Triticum aestivum with enhanced nutritional profiles to promote healthier diets.

Mapping Metabolic Pathways: Metabolomics helps map metabolites to pathways, unraveling the complex web of biochemical reactions in Triticum aestivum. This assists in understanding metabolic regulation and identifying targets for precision metabolic engineering.

Understanding Metabolic Dynamics: Employing metabolic flux analysis, we trace the movement of metabolites within pathways. This approach reveals how Triticum aestivum metabolism adapts to changing conditions, offering insights into growth and responses.

Biomarker Discovery: Metabolomics identifies potential biomarkers linked to desired traits, accelerating the development of improved Triticum aestivum cultivars.

Disease Resistance Exploration: By analyzing metabolic shifts, metabolomics uncovers Triticum aestivum's defense mechanisms against diseases, aiding in the study of plant-pathogen interactions.

Growth and Development Insights: Metabolomics tracks metabolite changes throughout growth stages, elucidating metabolic transitions and underlying regulatory mechanisms.

Environmental Adaptation: Investigate how Triticum aestivum responds to environmental cues, yielding data essential for sustainable agricultural practices.

Expert Data Analysis: Our proficient data analysis enhances your understanding of complex metabolomics data, facilitating informed decision-making.

Triticum aestivum Metabolomics Analysis Techniques

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS): LC-MS analysis is frequently conducted using instruments such as the Agilent 6550 iFunnel Q-TOF, Thermo Scientific Q Exactive HF-X, and Waters Xevo G2-XS QTOF.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS): GC-MS analysis for wheat research commonly employs instruments like the Agilent 7890A GC coupled with Agilent 5977B MSD and the Thermo Scientific TSQ 8000 Evo Triple Quadrupole GC-MS.

Workflow for Plant Metabolomics ServiceWorkflow for Plant Metabolomics Service

Sample Requirements for Triticum aestivum Metabolomics

Aspect Guidelines for Triticum aestivum Metabolomics
Sample Type Leaves, stems, roots, grains, or a combination
Sample Collection Harvest at specific growth stages or under conditions of interest
Sample Size Provide a minimum of 100 mg per sample for multiple analyses and replicates
Sample Storage Flash-freeze in liquid nitrogen, store at -80°C
Replicates Include a minimum of three biological replicates
Metadata Document growth stage, treatment conditions, and collection date

Case 1. Effects of PFOS Exposure on Wheat Growth, Grain Quality, and Metabolite Profile: Implications for Food Safety and Security


Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant that has raised environmental and health concerns due to its widespread occurrence and potential adverse effects. PFOS is known to accumulate in various ecosystems and organisms, including plants, leading to potential exposure through the food chain. Previous studies have highlighted its bioaccumulation potential and its capacity to induce oxidative stress in various organisms. However, limited research has been conducted on the specific impacts of PFOS exposure on crop plants and their grain quality. Understanding the potential effects of PFOS on crops is crucial for assessing its impact on food safety and security.


The study focused on wheat (Triticum aestivum) as the model plant. Wheat is a major staple crop globally and plays a critical role in human nutrition. The choice of wheat as the sample was based on its economic significance and its susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Wheat seeds were germinated and grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of PFOS, ranging from 0 to 50 mg/kg. The use of various PFOS concentrations allowed for the assessment of dose-dependent effects. Multiple replicates of each treatment were cultivated to ensure the reliability and validity of the results. The samples included various plant tissues, such as roots, shoots, and grains, to comprehensively evaluate the distribution and accumulation of PFOS within the plant. This sample design aimed to provide insights into how PFOS exposure affects wheat growth, grain quality, and potential human exposure through consumption.


Experimental Setup: Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was grown in soil contaminated with PFOS concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 mg/kg. The experimental design included multiple replicates for each treatment to ensure reliability.

Agronomic Measurements: Plant height and biomass were measured as indicators of growth and stress response. Grain yield was quantified to evaluate the impact of PFOS on productivity.

Biochemical Assays: Enzymatic assays were conducted to assess oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity. These included assays for superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) to determine the plant's ability to combat oxidative damage.

Bioaccumulation Assessment: PFOS concentrations were measured in various plant tissues, including roots, shoots, and grains, using techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

Ionomics Analysis: Elemental analysis of grains was performed to determine macroelement content (e.g., Mg, P, K, Fe). Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) or inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques may have been used for precise measurements.

Metabolomics Analysis: Metabolite profiling of wheat grains was conducted using metabolomics techniques. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was likely used to identify and quantify metabolites. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was employed for data analysis.

Pathway Analysis: Metabolites with variable importance in projection (VIP) scores ≥ 1 were subjected to metabolic pathway analysis. This helped identify specific pathways (e.g., arginine biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism) affected by PFOS exposure.

Data Interpretation: The results of agronomic measurements, biochemical assays, bioaccumulation assessment, ionomics analysis, and metabolomics analysis were collectively interpreted to understand the overall effects of PFOS on wheat plants and grain quality.


PFOS exposure led to stress-induced effects on wheat plants, resulting in decreased grain yield without significant changes in plant height and biomass.

Changes in macroelement content (Mg, P, K, Fe) of grains indicated alterations in the nutritional quality of wheat grains due to PFOS exposure.

Metabolomics analysis revealed significant alterations in the metabolite profile of wheat grains exposed to PFOS. These changes included perturbations in sugar metabolites, amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids, and DNA/RNA-related metabolites.

PFOS was found to accumulate in various plant tissues, including grains, raising concerns about its potential transfer to the human food chain.

The study highlighted the importance of assessing the long-term effects of PFOS exposure at realistic environmental concentrations and its potential implications for human health.

(A) Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plot and (B) VIP score for metabolomics of wheat grains harvested from plants grown in soil supplemented with 0, 25, and 50 mg/kg PFOS for 70 days.(A) Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plot and (B) VIP score for metabolomics of wheat grains harvested from plants grown in soil supplemented with 0, 25, and 50 mg/kg PFOS for 70 days.


  1. Gaffney, Isabella, et al. "Metabolomic approaches to studying the response to drought stress in corn (Triticum aestivum) cobs." Metabolites 11.7 (2021): 438.