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Acetylation

Introduction

Acetylation is an important modification of proteins in cell biology. N-acetylation, or the transfer of an acetyl group to nitrogen, occurs in almost all eukaryotic proteins through both irreversible and reversible mechanisms. N-terminal acetylation requires the cleavage of the N-terminal methionine by methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) before replacing the amino acid with an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes. It occurs as a co-translational and post-translational modification of proteins, for example, histones, STAT, and microtubules. Acetylation modification regulates protein conformation, and dysfunction of this modification has been implied in many diseases, including cancer. This type of acetylation is co-translational, in that N-terminus is acetylated on growing polypeptide chains that are still attached to the ribosome. While 80-90% of eukaryotic proteins are acetylated in this manner, the exact biological significance is still unclear.

N-terminal Acetylation

N-acetylation, or the transfer of an acetyl group to nitrogen, occurs in almost all eukaryotic proteins through both irreversible and reversible mechanisms. N-terminal acetylation requires the cleavage of the N-terminal methionine by methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) before replacing the amino acid with an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes. This type of acetylation is co-translational, in that N-terminus is acetylated on growing polypeptide chains that are still attached to the ribosome. While 80-90% of eukaryotic proteins are acetylated in this manner, the exact biological significance is still unclear.

Lysine Acetylation - Regulation of Histone

Acetylation at the ε-NH2 of lysine (termed lysine acetylation) on histone N-termini is a common method of regulating gene transcription. Histone acetylation is a reversible event that reduces chromosomal condensation to promote transcription, and the acetylation of these lysine residues is regulated by transcription factors that contain histone acetyletransferase (HAT) activity. While transcription factors with HAT activity act as transcription co-activators, histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are co-repressors that reverse the effects of acetylation by reducing the level of lysine acetylation and increasing chromosomal condensation. While acetylation was first detected in histones, cytoplasmic proteins have been reported to also be acetylated, and therefore acetylation seems to play a greater role in cell biology than simply transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, crosstalk between acetylation and other post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and methylation, can modify the biological function of the acetylated protein.

N-acetylation

Creative Proteomics has established a highly sensitive HPLC-MS/MS platform that can analyze acetylation in multiple samples and in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In addition, we have optimized our protocol to enable more fast and sensitive site mapping service for acetylation analysis.

Workflow of our Acetylation analysis service:

  • In gel or in solution digestion of proteins
  • Enrichment of acetylated proteins by antibodies targeting specific acetylation motifs (optional step)
  • HPLC separation, followed by ESI-TOF MS/MS analysis
  • Mass spectrometry data interpretation

Technology platform:

Creative Proteomics also provide the following bioinformatics services in Protein Post-translational Modification Analysis:
Functional annotation and enrichment analysis
Clustering analysis
Network analysis
Statistical analysis
Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

Please feel free to Contact Us to discuss your projects. We hope you will find that we can meet your research needs.

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