Protein methylation is a post-translational modification process, in which proteins are modified by an addition of methyl groups by S-adenosylmethionine dependent methyltransferases, with S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as the primary donor of methyl group. Methylation of proteins can occur on multiple amino acids on proteins, including arginine, lysine, histidine, etc. Methylation is mediated by methyltransferases, Methylation of lysine involves the addition of one to three methyl groups on the amino acid's ε-amine group, to form mono-, di- or tri-methyllysine. This modification often occurs in a conserved sequence motif on proteins. For example, two typical motifs are RGG box and RXR sequence. Depending on the site of residual methyl group attached to, there are two types of methylation: N-methylation and O-methylation. N-methylation is irreversible, whereas, O-methylation is potentially reversible.
The transfer of one-carbon methyl groups to nitrogen or oxygen (N- and O-methylation, respectively) to amino acid side chains increases the hydrophobicity of the protein and can neutralize a negative amino acid charge when bound to carboxylic acids. Methylation on the tails of histone proteins, in conjunction with acetylation and phosphorylation, controls their interaction with other proteins, affects chromatin compaction and the up- or down-regulation of gene expression.
Creative Proteomics has established a highly sensitive HPLC-MS/MS pipeline that can analyze N- and O-methylation in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In addition, we have optimized our protocol, to enable more fast and sensitive site mapping service for methylation analysis.
Workflow of our Methylation analysis service:
Creative Proteomics also provide the following bioinformatics services in Protein Post-translational Modification Analysis:
Functional annotation and enrichment analysis
Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications
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