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Pharmacokinetics quantitatively how the body affects a specific drug after administration through the mechanisms of absorption and distribution, as well as the chemical changes of the substance in the body (e.g. by metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 or glucuronosyltransferase enzymes), and the effects and routes of excretion of the metabolites of the drug. Usually 4 steps are inovlved in the pharmacokinetics procedure:

Absorption: the process of a substance entering the blood circulation;
Distribution: the dispersion/dissemination of substances throughout the body fluids, tissues and organs;
Metabolization: the recognition and irreversible transformation of parent compounds into daughter metabolites by metabolic enzymes;
Excretion: the removal of the substances from the body.

The two phases of metabolism and excretion can also be grouped together under the title elimination. The metabolites, Phase I or Phase II, maybe activated drugs (if the original compound is pre-drug), less toxic, or even more poisonous compounds, also need to be identified and quantified. The parameters would be directly measured and calculated using professional bioinformatics software WinNonlin, which is widely accepted by the academic and pharmaceutical industry. And in order to obtain a quantitative description of the ADME procedure, the parameters below are usually utilized:

CmaxThe peak plasma concentration of a drug after administration;
tmaxTime to reach Cmax;
CminThe lowest (trough) concentration that a drug reaches before the next dose is administered;
VdVolume of distribution
T1/2Elimination half-life
keElimination rate constant
AUCArea under the curve

Creative Proteomics is equipped with stable LC-MS systems, and staffed with experienced analysts and technicians, who are familar with the analytical work-flow and requirements from the regulation agenicies. Although the significance of automation is emphasized in bioanalytical procedures, Creative Proteomics always insist that the dedication and the skill of the staff are essential for success. So any specific question you may have can get optimal advices and rapid solution from our experienced an professional techical team.

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